Invalidating environment marsha linehan
Dissociation often occurs in response to experiencing a painful event (or experiencing something that triggers the memory of a painful event).
It involves the mind automatically redirecting attention away from that event, presumably to protect against experiencing intense emotion and unwanted behavioral impulses that such emotion might otherwise trigger.
Since the amygdala generates all emotions (including unpleasant ones), this unusually strong activity may explain the unusual strength and longevity of fear, sadness, anger, and shame experienced by people with BPD, as well as their heightened sensitivity to displays of these emotions in others.
Given its role in regulating emotional arousal, the relative inactivity of the prefrontal cortex might explain the difficulties people with BPD experience in regulating their emotions and responses to stress.
People with BPD may feel emotions with greater ease, depth and for a longer time than others do.
A core characteristic of BPD is affective instability, which generally manifests as unusually intense emotional responses to environmental triggers, with a slower return to a baseline emotional state.
These same researchers had earlier concluded in a previous study that 42 percent of variation in BPD features was attributable to genetic influences and 58 percent was attributable to environmental influences.
Genes under investigation as of 2012 include the 7-repeat polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on chromosome 11, which has been linked to disorganized attachment, whilst the combined effect of the 7-repeat polymorphism and the 10/10 dopamine transporter (DAT) genotype has been linked to abnormalities in inhibitory control, both noted features of BPD.
In addition to intense emotions, people with BPD experience emotional "lability"; or in other words, changeability.
Increased cortisol production is also associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior.